U.S. Citizenship for Your Adopted Child
Your adopted child may either be documented as a U.S. citizen when he or she enters the United States or may need to undertake additional steps in order to become a citizen. Please review our information about the Child Citizenship Act.
Post-Adoption and Post-Placement Reporting
Some countries require foreign adoptive parents to report on the health and welfare of children they have adopted, sometimes for years after the adoptions took place. These reports are generally referred to as post-adoption reports.
In general, post-adoption reports describe the child's development and progress adjusting to his or her new family and life in a new country. They may also provide assurances to political leaders and adoption officials in the child’s country of origin that the children they place in permanent families through intercountry adoption are receiving appropriate care and protection. The requirements and frequency of these reports vary from country to country. In addition, some countries expect a licensed social worker or the primary adoption service provider to prepare and submit the reports.
Some countries grant only provisional approval of an adoption pending a child’s residence for several months with the adoptive family in their country. Those countries may then require prospective adoptive parents to submit periodic post-placement reports. Based on these reports, the country of origin evaluates whether the child and parents are bonding and how well the child is settling into the new culture and family environment. Some countries expect a licensed social worker or the primary U.S. adoption service provider to prepare and submit these reports. Timely submission of post-placement reports will help to finalize the adoption without delay.
Compliance with Reporting Obligations
Understand a country's reporting requirements before pursuing an adoption. If you are not comfortable with a long term reporting obligation, you may wish to pursue adoption in a country that does not have such requirements.
We strongly urge all adoptive parents to comply with post-adoption and post-placement requirements in a timely manner. Your cooperation will contribute to the country of origin’s history of positive experiences with U.S. citizen adoptive parents.
Your adoption service provider, the country specific adoption information available on this website, and the U.S. embassy in the child’s country of origin will normally have helpful information with respect to any reporting requirements.
Many adoptive families find it beneficial to access resources and services during the lifelong journey of adoption. Services may include education, support groups, social and cultural activities, camps, therapists, tours, and information about searching for and contacting biological parents and relatives. There are many public and private nonprofit organizations that provide such post-adoption resources and services. There are also numerous adoptive family support groups and adult adoptee organizations active in the United States that provide a network of options for adoptive families who wish to have contact with other adoptees or adoptive families from the same country of origin.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Child Welfare Information Gateway provides a wealth of information related to child welfare, adoption, and more. It is a great first place to start your research.
Here are some additional resources to research post-adoption support and services:
- Adoption Mosaic
- Adoptive Families
- Adoptive Parents China
- Center for Adoption Support and Education
- Connect A Kid
- Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute
- Families for Russian and Ukrainian Adoption
- International Korean Adoptee Associations
- Latin American Parents Association
- Mixed Roots Foundation
- North American Council on Adoptable Children / NACAC FAQ's
Additional resources may be available at the State level.
NOTE: Inclusion of non-U.S. Government links does not imply endorsement of contents.